ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE BOER GOAT
Dr. Stuart Southwell, B.V.Sc. - M.R.C.V.S.
Premier Genetics NZ. Ltd. - Drury, New Zealand
The best way to spread elite genetic material throughout a population is by artificial insemination (A.I.). Semen can be collected from top sires, frozen, and then transported throughout the world, where it can influence large populations.
The Boer goat industry is essentially in its infancy, but when top sires are able to be identified, their genetics can be spread effectively by artifical insemination. I believe the Boer goat industry will use A.I. as a technique for spreading genetics more in the future, where as it is now more dependent on embryo transfer.
SOME IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT A.I.
1. Obtain frozen semen from a reputable source.
There is large variability in the number of live sperm obtained upon thawing. Have your frozen semen checked.
2. Rules Of Probablity
(a) If using fresh semen, good results can be achieved with cervical insemination. Best results are from natural heats, followed closely by synchronized heats. What you should expect to achieve - 65% pregnancy rate.
(b) Frozen semen should only be used for laproscopic insemination. Cervical inseminations are too variable. However, some operators do achieve good results off natural heats. From a practical point of view, if you are going to use frozen semen, then synchronize your does and inseminate laproscopically. Anticipated pregnancy rate - 60%.
3. When To Inseminate
Approximately 12 hours after first sign of oestrous. If the does are in season in the morning, inseminate in the evening. In season in the evening, inseminate the following morning.
4. Doe Management
Female goats must be prepared carefully prior to insemination. Does must be run together at least six months prior to programming. If they have kids at foot, these must be weaned two months before insemination. DO NOT mix groups of does just prior to programming, as it won't work.
Two weeks before the commencement of the programme, teaser bucks should be run with the does. This will stimulate oestrous and hence begin the reproductive mechanisms.
At the onset of the program does need to be nutritionally "flushed". This continues through to insemination and is maintained until 40 days past insemination. The doe will be gaining weight over this period and will have greater pregnancy rates by doing this than if she had not been flushed.
A TYPICAL A.I. PROGRAMME WOULD BE AS FOLLOWS:
Day 1 - CIDR IN
Day 17 - CIDR OUT
Day 19 - HEATS
The use of P.M.S.G. is debatable. Out of season situations do require the use of P.M.S.G. Dose rates are 150 I.U. to 400 I.U. per goat. This is normally given at CIDR OUT.
In season situation - I don't recommend the use of P.M.S.G. as I feel it reduces the pregnancy rate. Good management will give good results.
KEY POINTS TO A SUCCESSFUL A.I. PROGRAMME
1. Good Doe Management
2. Use of Quality Semen
About The Author
Dr. Stuart Southwell, B.V.Sc - M.R.C.V.S.
Premier Genetics N.Z. Ltd.
No one individual has contributed more to the development of the international Boer goat industry than Dr. Stuart Southwell of Premier Genetics N. Z. Ltd in Drury, New Zealand. He is widely known and respected for pioneering many of the embryo transfer techniques and programme protocols that are being employed by veterinarians and goat producers in many different countries of the world, and has willingly shared his knowledge and experience with those who have sought his advice and counsel. In addition to sharing his surgical techniques with other of his fellow veterinarians, Dr. Southwell has, himself, performed embryo recovery, splitting, and transfer on many thousands of Boer goats.
A brief history of his role in the development and propagation of the Boer goat on an international basis can be found elsewhere at this site, in an article by him that is entitled
"The Boer Goat Becomes International". Also of interest is his guide to the embro transfer process, which is entitled "Embryo Transfer In The Boer Goat".
To confer with Dr. Southwell regarding Boer goat embryo transfer or AI technology, or to engage his services, he may be contacted as follows:
Dr. Stuart Southwell, B.V.Sc. - M.R.C.V.S.
Premier Genetics NZ, Ltd.
R. D. 3
Drury, New Zealand
Phone: 0-9 236 0616
Fax: 0-9 236-0327