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MEAT GOAT PRODUCTION FOR SMALL-SCALE FARMERS.
Feeding the Goat Herd
by Claude H. McGowan and Godfrey A. Nurse
Link: http://www.famu.edu/acad/colleges/cesta/feeding.html
      INTRODUCTION
      The progressive meat goat producer should want
optimum performance from his animals. Therefore, quality
forage, hay grains, and the utilization of forbs and browse
plants, crop residue and crop by-products can provide a
balanced feed program for goats raised for meat.

      A. Pastures
      Pastures are usually the cheapest source of essential
nutrients for grazing livestock. Good permanent pastures
containing a mixture of cool season perennials or reseeding
legumes, warm season perennials grasses and temporary
forages should provide grazing for a year. Some of the best
pastures for goats raised for meat are Bahiagrass, millet,
sorghum, sudan grass and a mixture of a grain, grass and
clover (rye, ryegrass and crimson clover).
      
        Many of the practices of pasture establishment and
management will vary from area to area. This depends on
soil types, elevation, growing season, rainfall and
drainage. Also many factors influence the choice of
grasses, grains and legumes and a combination of the three.

      Some factors are:
       Natural adaptation for the plants. (Do they grow
well in your area and on your soil?)
       Managerial ability or capability of the meat goat
producer. Some varieties of pasture crops need more intense
care, fertilization, clipping and controlled grazing then
others.
       Available money to invest in pasture establishment.
       How will the crop be used? (For pastures alone, for
pasture and hay, for hay alone, to be grazed heavily and
continuously or rotationally grazed).

      Pastures will yield there most when they are limed,
fertilized, clipped on a routine basis and properly
managed. Proper grazing management involves paying
attention to the following:
      1. Grazing intensity overgrazing starves goats as
well as grasses resulting in fewer pounds of meat per acre.
Stocking must be adjusted in keeping will available forage.
      2. It is advisable to limit acreage of some pastures
to what the goat can use during period of lust growth,
e.g., during spring.

      SOME MANAGEMENT TIPS FOR GOATS ON PASTURE
      1. Provide adequate water and shade.
      2. Provide goats with mineral mix and trace mineral
salt. Do not mix salt and minerals together. Salt may
encourage the animal to consume larger quantities of the
mineral mix than that is needed.
      3. Provide animals ready access to hay.
      4. Provide ample pasture areas for rotating animals.
Moving animal among pasture areas at least every 7 days
permit pastures rejuvenation, and helps to break the cycle
of internal parasite.

      A. FORBS AND BROWSE PLANTS
      Forbs refer to any herbaceous broad leaf plants
without regard to family classification. Browse plants
includes plants other than grasses and are usually taller
plants e.g., trees, shrubs and vines having woody stems.

      Goats are natural browsers and weed eaters. Forbs and
Browse plants can contribute to an overall feeding program
for goats. The nutritive strategy of goats appears to be to
select grasses when their protein content and digestibility
are high, but switch to forbs and browse plants when the
overall nutritive value may be higher. Leguminous forbs and
browse plants, for example, commonly contain more than 25%
crude protein, where as perennial grasses seldom exceed 15%
crude protein content. The energy contents for fruits, seed
and nuts of forbs and browse may exceed 1.6 megacalories
digestible energy per pound of dry matter. In grass
foliage, 1.2 megacalories per pound of dry matter is
considered high quality. Keep in mind that when animals are
browsing they may, due to starvation or by accident,
consume poisonous plants. Some of these plants are the
following:
      1. Wilted cherry, peach and plum leaves. The limp
green or partially yellow leaves are the most dangerous.
      2. Crotalaria.
      3. Nightshade.
      4. Poke weed.
      5. Clippings from ornamental plants.

      C. CROP RESIDUES AND CROP BY-PRODUCTS
      Goats provide an excellent means for utilizing crop
residues and crop by-products. Vines, stems, leaves and
other plant residues that have not been treated with
harmful pesticides may be used for feed.
      For example:
      1. Plant residues from most vegetable crops, tuberous
crops, and green stover of corn, sorghum and millet are
excellent feeds when fed green.
      2. Meal cake from extraction of oil from oil seeds
(cottonseed, peanut etc.) is high protein feed of excellent
nutritive quality. The greatest values of these feedstuffs
are their utilization in summer months when perennial
forage plants are making little or no growth.

      D. HAY
      Hay that is of high quality is an excellent feed for
goats. However, legume hay is higher in protein and
minerals compared to grass hay. A visual appearance can
give much information about the quality of hay such as:
      A. Lack of seed heads indicates early cutting.
      B. Coarse stems suggest late cutting while crushed
stems indicate early removal.
      C. Earlier cutting date indicates more digestible
nutrients.
      D. More leaves provide more protein and minerals.
      E. The presence of weeds or tree leaves mean reduced
feed value.
      F. Green color indicates presence of vitamin.

      E. CONCENTRATES
      Grains such as corn, oats and barley are excellent
sources of energy. These grains are best utilized by the
goats, if they are either cracked, crimped or rolled. If
fed whole most of them will go through the animal.
Concentrate mixtures (pellets) for goats that contain
linseed meal, soybean meal or dried brewer's grains are
available at some local feed stores.

      FEEDING THE GOAT HERD
      Since, meat goat producers largely determine their
own destiny when it comes to feeding, it is important that
they are familiar with some of the nutrients essential to
reproduction and production efficiency in goats. 

      F. ENERGY DEFICIENCY
      A shortage of energy may result in the following: 
       Poor growth and development.
       Failure to show estrus or heat.
       Low milk production.
       Low kidding percentage.
       Lightweight kids at birth.
       Abortions.
       Low kid survival.

      G. PROTEIN DEFICIENCY
      A shortage of protein may result in the following:
       Delay onset of puberty.
       Impair fertility.
       Poor growth.
       Loss of weight.
       Reduced milk production.
       Low kidding percentage.

      H. PHOSPHORUS
      A shortage of phosphorus may result in the following:
       Delay onset of puberty.
       Failure to cycle regularly.
       Low first service conception rates and silent heat.
       Milk production may drop.

      I. PHOSPHORUS AND VITAMIN D
      Vitamin D is necessary for phosphorus absorption.
Animals raised in confinement and exposed to minimal
sunlight should be supplemented with vitamin D. If not,
kids may develop rickets and adults ostemalacia.

      J. SELENIUM AND VITAMIN E
      Selenium-vitamin E deficiencies in growing kids can
lead to white muscle disease and increased incidence of
retained placenta. These nutrients can be supplemented by
feeding or by injections.

      K. VITAMIN A
      Vitamin A is essential for normal sperm production.
It is also needed for vision, healthy skin and mucal
membranes. The presence of nitrates or nitrites in feed can
interfere with sufficient levels of vitamin A reserves in
the liver or inhibit conversion of carotene to vitamin A.

      A deficiency of vitamin A may result in:
      A. Kids may be born weak or dead.
      B. Abortions or retained placenta may occur.
      C. Newborn kids may have lower vitamin A reserves,
which may lead to mortality.
      D. Eye abnormalities, which are serious deficiency
signs.
     
Mr. Claude H. McGowan, Coordinator
FAMU Statewide Goat Program
Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, FL 32307  

Link: http://www.famu.edu/acad/colleges/cesta/feeding.html

 

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